The increasing costs associated with makeup and discharge water, as well as safety issues associated with the use of acid for pH control demand that cooling towers be operated at higher cycles of concentration without acid feed. Under these conditions, high calcium ion concentrations and high alkalinity at high pH makes control of calcium carbonate extremely critical. The paper presents laboratory data and history in which the effectiveness of a new cost effective treatment for control of calcium carbonate at 200 times calcite saturation at alkaline conditions.
97-11: A New Treatment for Calcium Carbonate Control in Alkaline Conditions
Jasbir S. Gill, Jennifer R. Parson, Robert C. Gordon, Calgon Corp.