High levels of total dissolved solids, ammonia, phosphate and organic impurities characterize municipal wastewaters. This paper presents results of an in depth laboratory and on-site study investigating the use of tertiary treated municipal effluent as cooling water make-up. The corrosion, fouling and microbiological challenges unique to this water are analyzed and solutions presented. An analysis of the various components of the cost for treating this water is presented.
95-11: Re-Use of Reclaimed Municipal Waste Water as Cooling Water Make-Up
Narasimha M. Rao, Nalco Chemical Company