Modern all-organic corrosion control programs for cooling water treatment are generally based on phosphonate chemistry.  Recent studies have highlighted the advantages of hydroxy phosphono acetic acid (HPA) based formulations compared to those of other phosphonates.  Particular interests are the range of applicability, improved corrosion control, and the forgiving nature of the programs in use.  A further mechanistic investigation has revealed the mode of action of HPA as a true corrosion inhibitor in a range of water chemistries and application conditions.

94-11: A Mechanistic Study of Corrosion Inhibition by Phosphonates