The decreasing availability of high quality water, high pumping costs and environmental regulations are driving cooling water systems towards higher cycles, brackish makeup and zero discharge. This paper presents solutions to the difficulties of recommending chemical treatments for such systems. The methods used to obtain phase diagrams incorporating the kinetics of mineralization rather than pure equilibrium thermodynamics is discussed.
85-15: Study of Cooling Water at High Cycles
Jasbir S. Gill & Richard G. Varsanik, Calgon Corporation