Closed circuit coolers and refrigerant condensers which utilize air-cooled heat exchange are growing in popularity for various reasons, but mainly to conserve water. However, in climates with high ambient temperatures, air-cooled heat exchangers require too much capital cost, consume too much energy and/or require too much plan area. In many cases, incorporating adiabatic pads on an air-cooled heat exchanger (a.k.a., an adiabatic fluid cooler or refrigerant condenser) is the best solution to balance costs, energy consumption and the size or number of units required.

19-25: Adiabatic Fluid Coolers and Condensers: Impact of Pad System Design on

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