Customers are facing a trending reduction in the allowable phosphorus they can expect from open recirculatory cooling systems in direct discharge applications, requiring significant modification of traditional treatment programs. Other customers have had to circumvent fouling associated with the use of phosphorus inhibitors, seeking non-fouling options and assurances. This paper will provide a review of metal solutions, as well as, highlight recent advances in the use of aluminum and all organic solutions. Surface analysis was used to identify passivation films and correlate their chemical composition to respective treatment and water conditions, providing the knowledge to manipulate film chemistry for performance.

19-10: Metal and Organic Solutions for Reduced Phosphorous Applications

$12.00Price
  • Paul R. Frail and Claudia Pierce, Suez Water & Technologies Solutions