In recent years there have been a relatively large number of unexpected, premature failures of system water piping associated with HVAC, Process Cooling, and Fire Water systems in modern buildings designed for commercial, residential, health care, governmental, and manufacturing occupancy. Facilities designed to provide long term service live are failing due to severe corrosion resulting in complete penetration of circulating water piping as a result of severe pitting type attack. This corrosion is occurring on the water side in both galvanized and un-galvanized carbon steel and copper piping. It is not uncommon to encounter systems where complete penetration has occurred within 4 to 8 years after initial commissioning, even though it appears to the building management team that an appropriate water treatment program is in place. These premature failures are now finding their way into the courts, as attempts are made to determine responsibility and to seek compensation for these failures, resulting in severe reduction in asset value.

14-20: Premature Failure of Open and Closed Recirculating Cooling Water and