This paper will review the fundamental operational principals found in the main physical water treatment systems; pressure, UV, magnetics, induced (pulsed), and static electric fields.  Both scientific and empirical data will be presented.  Field data will be obtained for small to large cooling towers. Data on COC, pH, conductivity, as well as scale, corrosion, and biological control will be covered.

08-15: Physical Water Treatment for Cooling Towers

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