A concise and practical review of the softening process chemistry, including a review of the many chemical additive options for different influents emphasizing simplified chemistry maintenance is discussed.  Several useful mechanical maintenance recommendations and chemical application modifications for often problematic operations will be provided based on long term zero discharge experiences.  A "bonus" value proposition, the diversion of various plant waste streams other than tower Blowdown to the softener for processing to characteristics suitable for tower makeup and other plant uses, is described.  Lime/soda ash softener function, enhancement of the quality of the tower circulating water is included.

06-08: Realizing the Full Potential of Your Cooling Tower Lime/Soda Ash Blowdow